Biophilia » Lotus Effects, LLC » Bozeman Photography, Graphic & Web Design
The Biophilia Hypothesis, coined by Harvard entomologist Edwin O. Wilson (1984), suggests the human genotype evolved with an innate affinity for living systems. “It was first used by Erich Fromm to describe a psychological orientation of being attracted to all that is alive and vital. Wilson uses the term in the same sense when he suggests that biophilia describes ‘the connections that human beings subconsciously seek with the rest of life.’”
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Jackson Lake, Grand Teton National Park, WY - 2008 and 2013

Biophilia is an ongoing exploration of human interactions with natural heritage sites in the United States. The odyssey has so far spanned 30,000-miles and captured 100,000 images and clips from around the country.

Initially intended to capture beautiful landscapes, Biophilia quickly evolved to document the consequential impacts of a changing climate on environments that have been stable for thousands of years. The alarming contrasts observed since 2008 took the abstraction of climate change and turned it into a tangibly visual experience; it confronts the viewer with meditations on creation, energy, attachments, identity, loss, and the memories that remain.

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The Biophilia Hypothesis, coined by Harvard entomologist Edwin O. Wilson (1984), suggests the human genotype evolved with an innate affinity for living systems. “It was first used by Erich Fromm to describe a psychological orientation of being attracted to all that is alive and vital. Wilson uses the term in the same sense when he suggests that biophilia describes ‘the connections that human beings subconsciously seek with the rest of life.’”
SELECTIONS FROM PHASE I – FLORIDA (IN PROGRESS)
EXTENDED TRAILER

Millions of people do not believe in climate change or witness environmental deterioration happening around them.

 

80% of Americans live in urban areas from which heritage sites are unreachable for a majority of people.

 

They are often unaware of lobbying and legislation that adversely affect these protected environments.

 

Most importantly many do not consider the valuable benefits of these living museums, and that the changing environmental and political climates create consequences that would affect the quality of life of every American.

$15,000

BASIC GOAL

FUNDED *USD0%

7 BACKERS

REWARDS

$3 or more (1 backer)

  • Thank you for your support! You will receive updates about the project as it progresses.

 

$10 or more

  • 3 mobile optimized wallpapers featuring original work from the project
  • Name included in the published donor list
  • Thank you card featuring original work from the project

 

$25 or more (1 backer)

  • Digital version of the book
  • 5 mobile optimized wallpapers and 5 desktop wallpapers featuring original work from the project
  • + everything above

 

$50 or more (2 backers)

  • 6″ x 6″ Chatbook of 60 assorted images from the project
  • Small, matted, limited edition signed print from the project in protective foil
  • + everything above

 

$75 or more

  • 100 page, 12″ x 9″ published glossy photobook
  • Digital version of the book
  • 5 mobile optimized wallpapers and 5 desktop wallpapers featuring original work from the project
  • Thank you card featuring original work from the project
  • Name included in the published donor list

 

$100 or more (limit of 5o)

  • Signed, 100 page, 12″ x 9″ published glossy photobook
  • Digital version of the book
  • Matted 8″ x 10″ limited edition signed print from the project in protective foil
  • 5 mobile optimized wallpaper and 5 desktop wallpapers featuring original work from the project
  • Thank you card featuring original work from the project
  • Name included in the published donor list

 

$150 or more

  • Two signed, 100 page, 12″ x 9″ published glossy photobooks
  • Digital version of the book
  • 5 mobile optimized wallpaper and 5 desktop wallpapers featuring original work from the project
  • Thank you card featuring original work from the project
  • Name included in the published donor list
or
  • Signed, 100 page, 12″ x 9″ published glossy photobook
  • Digital version of the book
  • 14″ x 9″ luster photo print rolled in a tube
  • 5 mobile optimized wallpapers and 5 desktop wallpapers featuring original work from the project
  • Thank you card featuring original work from the project
  • Name included in the published donor list

 

$250 or more

  • Signed, 100 page, 12″ x 9″ published glossy photobook
  • Digital version of the book
  • 23″ x 15″ poster featuring original work from the project
  • Hardcover journal or spiral notebook with a cover featuring original work from the project
  • Matted 8″ x 10″ limited edition signed print from the project in protective foil
  • 5 mobile optimized wallpaper and 5 desktop wallpapers featuring original work from the project
  • Thank you card featuring original work from the project
  • Name included in the published donor list

 


$500 or more

  • Signed, 100 page, 12″ x 9″ published glossy photobook
  • Digital version of the book
  • 23″ x 15″ poster featuring original work from the project
  • All Over Print T-shirt designed by Lotus Effects
  • 18″ x 18″ poly poplin Tote Bag and 9.5″ x 6″ canvas/poly-cotton Carry-All Pouch designed by Lotus Effects
  • Hardcover journal (or) spiral notebook with a cover featuring original work from the project
  • Matted 8″ x 10″ limited edition signed print from the project in protective foil
  • 5 mobile optimized wallpaper and 5 desktop wallpapers featuring original work from the project
  • Thank you card featuring original work from the project
  • Name included in the published donor list
or
  • Signed, 100 page, 12″ x 9″ published glossy photobook
  • Digital version of the book
  • 23″ x 15″ poster featuring original work from the project
  • 68″ x 80″ polyester sherpa fleece blanket (or) 68″ x 80″ hand-sewn polyester wall tapestry designed by Lotus Effects
  • Matted 8″ x 10″ limited edition signed print from the project in protective foil
  • 5 mobile optimized wallpapers and 5 desktop wallpapers featuring original work from the project
  • Thank you card featuring original work from the project
  • Name included in the published donor list

 

$750 or more

  • Signed, 100 page, 12″ x 9″ published glossy photobook
  • Digital version of the book
  • 23″ x 15″ poster featuring original work from the project
  • All Over Print T-shirt designed by Lotus Effects
  • 68″ x 80″ polyester sherpa fleece blanket designed by Lotus Effects
  • 18″ x 18″ poly poplin Tote Bag and 9.5″ x 6″ canvas/poly-cotton Carry-All Pouch designed by Lotus Effects
  • Hardcover journal (or) spiral notebook with a cover featuring original work from the project
  • Matted 8″ x 10″ limited edition signed print from the project in protective foil
  • 5 mobile optimized wallpaper and 5 desktop wallpapers featuring original work from the project
  • Thank you card featuring original work from the project
  • Name included in the published donor list

 

$1,000 or more (3 backers)

  • Signed, 100 page, 12″ x 9″ published glossy photobook
  • Digital version of the book
  • 23″ x 15″ poster featuring original work from the project
  • All Over Print T-shirt designed by Lotus Effects
  • 68″ x 80″ polyester sherpa fleece blanket designed by Lotus Effects
  • 14″ x 9″ aluminum giclée print featuring original work from the project
  • 18″ x 18″ poly poplin Tote Bag and 9.5″ x 6″ canvas/poly-cotton Carry-All Pouch designed by Lotus Effects
  • Hardcover journal (or) spiral notebook with a cover featuring original work from the project
  • Matted 8″ x 10″ limited edition signed print from the project in protective foil
  • 5 mobile optimized wallpaper and 5 desktop wallpapers featuring original work from the project
  • Thank you card featuring original work from the project
  • Name included in the published donor list
or
  • Signed, 100 page, 12″ x 9″ published glossy photobook
  • Digital version of the book
  • 23″ x 15″ poster featuring original work from the project
  • 24″ x 36″ aluminum giclée print featuring original work from the project
  • Hardcover journal (or) spiral notebook with a cover featuring original work from the project
  • Matted 8″ x 10″ limited edition signed print from the project in protective foil
  • 5 mobile optimized wallpapers and 5 desktop wallpapers featuring original work from the project
  • Thank you card featuring original work from the project
  • Name included in the published donor list
ESTIMATED DELIVERY
DIGITAL REWARDS – JANUARY 2017
FULL PROJECT & REWARDS – JANUARY 2018

 

Join the Mailing List to receive updates
$50,000
EXTENDED GOAL
FUNDED *USD0%
Canary Spring, Yellowstone National Park, WY - 2008 & 2012
Hoh Rainforest, Olympic National Park, WA - 2008
Olympic Peninsula, WA - 2008
Lone Peak, Big Sky, MT 8/2015 - forest fire smoke over a 12 hour period
PHASE I - BASIC GOAL (COMPLETE)
False Klamath Cove, Redwood National Park, CA - 2008

The Basic Goal seeks to compile existing work from 2008-2016 (Yellowstone, Pacific Northwest, and Northern California) into a photography book, and include new expeditions from around Florida, across the Gulf of Mexico, north through the Rocky Mountains back to Yellowstone National Park.

 

THE BUDGET

Percentage Breakdown –
Equipment: 51%, Production (Travel – Camping – Lodging – Food – Permits, etc.): 21%, Reward Incentives & Book Production: 28%

 

While on-location in Florida, photography equipment was destroyed in a boating accident in December 2015. This was unfortunately not covered by insurance (we will find an insurance solution to ensure this doesn’t happen again). A majority of the budget will be used to replace this equipment with the lightweight versatility of the SONY A7R II system to keep Lotus Effects viable and enable the project’s completion. The remainder will be used for travel and production expenses (we would spend a majority of the time camping with limited overhead), incentive reward costs, and book production. The goal we are setting for this campaign will get us through two additional expeditions back to Yellowstone from Florida.

PROPOSED ROUTE

Subject to Alterations

Beginning in May 2016, we hope to explore Florida to look at climate change issues affecting the most vulnerable state in the country. Starting with natural springs dotting the north, down to Lake Okeechobee and following the coast to the Everglades, there are a number of environmental and political influences that make Florida an epicenter of climate change. By 2100 it is predicted that Everglade National Park, Miami, and a majority of the existing Florida coastline will be under water. Florida’s unique aquifer and spring system and existing waterways are threatened by agricultural practices and recently passed fracking legislation.

Woods Ferry Conservation Area, FL

PROPOSED ROUTE 2

Subject to Alterations

Making our way across Northern Florida, we’ll follow the Gulf Coast across Texas to  New Mexico and Colorado to address drought, desertification, and threatened forest habitats. Continuing into Wyoming and through fracking fields, we’ll make it back to Yellowstone for a final observation of the region during spring.

 

The next step will be to add additional equipment in order to make a feature film (a camera body compatible with the still photography system and lenses), as well as explore the Southwest and West Coast.

Old Faithful, Yellowstone National Park, WY - 2013
PHASE II - EXTENDED GOAL
Second Beach, Olympic National Park, WA - 2010

The Extended Goal builds on the book project with equipment and resources to create an independent film and web media project and would provide funds for additional expeditions to the Southwest and West Coast.

 

THE BUDGET

Percentage Breakdown –
Equipment: 25%, Production (Travel – Camping – Lodging – Food – Permits, etc.): 25%, Reward Incentives: 15%, Film/Web Production: 20%

 

A portion of the budget will be used to upgrade our equipment to include a compatible movie-making system that would work interchangeably with existing lenses. The second camera body, the SONY A7S II, is specifically designed for video and low light situations, but lacks the megapixels required to produce quality enlargements. Additional lenses, movie production panning, time lapse, and walk-about accessories, and an upgraded computer, storage, and editing software will keep Lotus Effects competitive and enable the project’s completion. The remainder will be used for travel and production expenses, incentive reward costs, and additional book and web production. The extended goal we are setting for this campaign will get us through additional expeditions across the Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and West Coast.

PROPOSED ROUTE

Subject to Alteration

We hope to explore the Southwest to look at drought, water loss, agricultural production stress, forest ecosystem crises, desertification and other issues affecting one of the most vulnerable regions in the country to climate change. Starting with southern Idaho and the Great Salt Lake, down through Utah, Arizona, and the desert and mountain regions of California, we’d meander back through Colorado and into Wyoming to return to Yellowstone.

Jackson Lake, Grand Teton National Park, WY - 2013

PROPOSED ROUTE 2

Subject to Adjustment

Traveling to Glacier National Park and making our way west to return to Western Washington and previous shoot locations in Olympic National Park and Mt. Rainier National Park, we’d head south along the Oregon Coast into Northern California and the Redwoods. Following the California coast down to San Diego, we’d explore the Central Valley and northern region, making our way back across Oregon and Southern Idaho.

Kalaloch, Olympic National Park, WA - 2009
THE TEAM

DIRECTOR/CINEMATOGRAPHER

Mikeal Beland

Mikeal Beland

 

Growing up near Yellowstone from a cattle ranching and outdoorsman heritage, I’ve always had an affinity for the environment. I think it’s impossible to be from Montana and not have an understanding that the earth is the largest and most dominant thing around you. You don’t get that perspective living in a city, especially many on the East Coast, because your world is about what mankind has tamed and separated itself from. I really love the energy and jolt of a place like New York, but it really can’t compare to the top of a mountain out west. The sensation is just entirely different, enveloping every part of you and activating something we are just beginning to understand scientifically.
National Parks and other protected environments were always interesting to me. Living museums and heritage sites were the focus of my early trips, before I went to New York and learned about photography. The more time I spent in them, and was aware of what was happening to our planet, it was impossible to ignore the changes I saw happening. It alarmed me how quickly these landmarks were changing. I’ll never forget hiking to Canary Spring in Yellowstone for a sunset picture, 4 years after my first shot, only to see it dried up; or Jackson Lake reduced to a couple of ponds on the north end after the government shutdown of 2013. Just recently the Great Barrier Reef, the world’s largest living organism over 1,000 miles long off the coast of Australia, was reported to be almost dead. Only 7% of it remains alive after the El Nino of 2016.
People would be horrified if someone went into the Louvre and slashed the Mona Lisa, yet the world’s natural resources are being destroyed without much of a conversation happening about what we’re losing (not in the mainstream media, anyway). Soon there will just be memories left of these places. I wanted to do a different kind of project that grappled with these themes, and here it is. I really can’t wait to see what happens with this project, and I hope it inspires people to think differently about what’s happening to the planet they take for granted.

PRODUCTION ASSISTANT

Eric Deen

 

I grew up in Dayton, Ohio and graduated from Sinclair Community College. Growing up in the urban suburbs of Dayton left me feeling disconnected from the natural world, so I decided to move to Montana to find out who I was in relation to the planet. I was forever changed by the 100 mile views from mountaintops, the radiant energy flowing from the abundance of life around me, and most importantly the understanding that I has no idea how to survive outside of society. I experienced first hand having to work outdoors when you couldn’t see more than 100 yards in any direction due to forest fires in the region. The time I spent communing with nature imbued a sense of how I can best serve the people of my community. These realizations led me to the Florida School of Massage, where I was able to spend time exploring the natural springs and coastlines of Florida. Discovering the environmental changes taking place down here led me to connect Mikeal with Florida’s voice in the story being told. I bring the perspective of a person who is going through an awakening to the importance of these areas on a spiritual, personal health, and economic / community driven basis. We need this biodiversity to survive as a species.
FAQ
  1. I don’t have any money but want to help. What can I do?
    Help spread the word about this project to your network, on social media, or any place you can think of. The more people know the more opportunities are available.
  2. Why aren’t you using a crowdfunding platform?
    We’re looking to start as soon as possible. This is an ongoing project with many variables and timelines that are dependent on different requirements. Hosting the project locally allows the greatest flexibility, and utilizing PayPal reduces overhead costs associated with platforms like Kickstarter or IndieGoGo. Each platform takes out a significant percentage (more than double our approach) that cuts into the money available for a project’s success. There is also no guarantee of being funded, which can waste everyone’s time and money with crowdfunding platform fees. This way if you donate, it’s 100% guaranteed more of the donation will go to fund Lotus Effect’s creative work and its intended purpose.
  3. Will you ever use a crowdfunding platform?
    Depending on the duration of the project, additional volumes or production requirements might bring it to a larger audience on crowdfunding platforms. This is the starting point to mitigate risks and achieve initial schedule requirements.
  4. How do I trust you?
    This process will take the best ideas from the crowdfunding platforms and utilize their standards of transparency and good-faith efforts to the best of our ability. We’ll provide updates along the way and maintain communication with donors over the course of the project. This is our passion and we want to do everything we can to see it come to life. If you have any concerns you can  contact us at any time.
  5. How is my information secure?
    All of your financial information is utilized by PayPal, a trusted platform used by eBay and retailers around the world. We will not have access to your personal financial information. The only thing we ask you to volunteer is your contact information to send you donation perks. You can opt out and be completely anonymous if you choose. All of this information is private and none of it is disseminated to third parties.
  6. What happens if the project isn’t fully funded?
    We will use what resources and content that are available to create the best possible product. The initial goal is a photography book if the basic goal threshold is met. The fully funded extended goal includes a movie and web project. If we are unable to match the basic goal, we will have to make adjustments to the outcome.
  7. What happens to my donation if the basic goal isn’t funded?
    All donations will be used to support our studio and projects to allow us to keep creating. Donations represent irrevocable gifts subject to the legal and fiduciary control of Lotus Effects, LLC. Depending on the reward level, we will provide an alternative reward to thank you for donating.
  8. Is my donation tax-deductible?
    No. Lotus Effects, LLC is not a nonprofit organization.
  9. What if I don’t want to donate online?
    If you want to donate but don’t want to use PayPal, please get in touch and we’ll send you a form and an address to mail a check.
  10. What are my guarantees as a donor?
    If you donate we will make every effort to complete this project, reach our goal, and distribute rewards and the final project with transparency and open communication.
  11. Why do you have 2 goals and why are there no rewards with the extended goal?
    To get started we are just asking for funding to complete a photo book. Should we exceed that goal and meet the extended goal, additional rewards will be added to the reward list, including: limited access to a pre-release streaming copy of the movie, DVD and movie poster, credits in the movie, among many others. They will be added in the future according to the evolution of the project. For now this is a starting point and we’ll keep you updated.

If you have additional questions, please get in touch and we’ll respond as soon as possible.

RISKS & CHALLENGES

The next chapter in Florida to Yellowstone is contingent on equipment financing and has a limited window for completion. Currently we are working on our own time, hoping our campaign will come through so that we can keep the production going. We’ve broken up the project into sections and goals that would allow a range of outcomes from a photo book to the best case scenario of a book/movie/media project. This flexibility means that the end result is also flexible. Additional volumes and fully funded goals of a movie and website production, and returning to locations in the future are contingent on funding, scheduling, current events, and other challenges that might present themselves. With these factors in mind, we are just asking for help for this leg of the project to create a finished product in time for Christmas 2016. With your help, the funding can help guarantee the best possible outcome to produce a high quality project and would eliminate the majority of risk. We have already proven the longevity and ability to come this far on our own, and hope you’ll be part of the remaining journey.

Rialto Beach, Olympic National Park, WA - 2010
BIOPHILIA
Copyright 2016 – Lotus Effects, LLC – All Rights Reserved
www.lotuseffects.com
www.mikealbeland.com
All third party content isused under fair use or public domain. Their inclusion does not constitute any affiliation or endorsement on the part of those parties.
 
PHOTOGRAPHY, CINEMATOGRAPHY, EDITING & DESIGN – Mikeal Beland
 
TITLE LOGO –
Total Solar eclipse 1999 in France. * Additional noise reduction performed by Diliff. Original image by Luc Viatour / www.Lucnix.be. “File:Solar Eclipse 1999 4 NR.jpg.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 22 Apr. 2016. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_eclipse#/media/File:Solar_eclipse_1999_4_NR.jpg
 
MUSIC –
“Atmospheric” – mcxvic (http://audiojungle.net/item/atmospheric/8391763) Licensed “Minimal” – soundaround (http://audiojungle.net/item/minimal/8492573)
Licensed
 
“Wisdom Quest Prayer” – MarcusBresslerMusic (http://audiojungle.net/item/wisdom-quest-prayer/13233679)
Licensed
 
“Firesong” –  Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
 
 
SOURCES (in order of appearance) –
 
ESA/Hubble & NASA. Hubble Spies a Spiral Galaxy Edge-on. Web. April 20, 2016. Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_2210.html
 
Visions Of Venus. (n.d.). Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/10965
 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center Solar and Heliospheric Observatory footage courtesy of NASA/ESA Synthesis Data Visualizations Credit: Michael Starobin, Producer All data visualizations provided by the Scientific Visualization Studio NASA Enters World of Ultra-High-Def (4K) Video. (n.d.). Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/12034
 
Hiser, David. “Newspaper Rock in 1972.” Newspaper Rock in 1972. US National Archives – Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.Weekly US Drought Monitor – 06/28/12. NOAA. Web. April 20, 2016 Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newspaper_Rock_State_Historic_Monument#/media/File:NEWSPAPER_ROCK,_IN_INDIAN_CREEK_HISTORIC_STATE_PARK,_IS_REMARKABLE_FOR_THE_CLARITY_AND_NUMBER_OF_ITS_ANCIENT_INDIAN…_-_NARA_-_545679.jpg
 
“File: V Bierstadt – The Rocky Mountains, Lander’s Peak.jpg.” Wikipedia. Metropolitan Museum of Art – Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 22 Apr. 2016. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Rocky_Mountains,_Lander’s_Peak#/media/File:Albert_Bierstadt_-_The_Rocky_Mountains,_Lander’s_Peak.jpg
 
“Ferdinand V. Hayden’s Map of Yellowstone National Park, 1871.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 22 Apr. 2016. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellowstone_National_Park#/media/File:Yellowstone_1871b.jpg
 
Jackson, William Henry. “1871 Hayden Survey at Mirror Lake En Route to East Fork of the Yellowstone River, August 24, 1871.” Wikipedia. USGS Photographic Library – Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 22 Apr. 2016. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hayden_Geological_Survey_of_1871#/media/File:Hayden_PackTrain_1871_jwh00114.jpg
 
Moran, Thomas. “More Details The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, Smithsonian American Art Museum Gallery of Thomas Moran Paintings.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 22 Apr. 2016. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Moran#/media/File:Thomas_Moran_-_Grand_Canyon_of_the_Yellowstone_-_Smithsonian.jpg
 
“Union Pacific Railway Brochure Promoting Travel to Park (1921).” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 22 Apr. 2016. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellowstone_National_Park#/media/File:Union_Pacific_Yellowstone_Na
 
“Roosevelt Rough Ridders.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 22 Apr. 2016. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rough_Riders#/media/File:Col_roosevelt_rough_rider.jpg
 
Synthesis Data Visualizations Credit: Michael Starobin, Producer All data visualizations provided by the Scientific Visualization Studio NASA Enters World of Ultra-High-Def (4K) Video. (n.d.). Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/12034
 
“Time-Lapse Videos.” TimeLapse Videos. NASA Crew Earth Observations. Web. 22 Apr. 2016. Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/46927824
 
Kaplan, Sarah. “Earth Is on Brink of a Sixth Mass Extinction, Scientists Say, and It’s Humans’ Fault.” Washington Post. The Washington Post, 22 June 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2016. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2015/06/22/the-earth-is-on-the-brink-of-a-sixth-mass-extinction-scientists-say-and-its-humans-fault/
 
Stein, Theo. “Record Annual Increase of Carbon Dioxide Observed at Mauna Loa for 2015.” Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. NASA, 11 Mar. 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016. Retrieved from http://climate.nasa.gov/news/2413/
 
“A Year In The Life Of Earth’s CO2.” GMS. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, 17 Nov. 2014. Web. 22 Apr. 2016. Retrieved from http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=11719
 
“Greenhouse Gas Benchmark Reached.” Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research. NOAA, 6 May 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2016. Retrieved from http://research.noaa.gov/News/NewsArchive/LatestNews/TabId/684/ArtMID/1768/ArticleID/11153/Greenhouse-gas-benchmark-reached-.aspx
 
“Five-Year Global Temperature Anomalies from 1880 to 2013.” SVS: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio Data Provided by Robert B. Schmunk (NASA/GSFC GISS). Web. 22 Apr. 2016. Retrieved from http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=4135
 
Gillis, Justin. “Scientists Warn of Perilous Climate Shift Within Decades, Not Centuries.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 22 Mar. 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/23/science/global-warming-sea-level-carbon-dioxide-emissions.html?_r=0
 
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